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Dharma, Artha, and Kama at different times and in such a manner that
they may harmonize together and not clash in any way. He should acquire
learning in his childhood, in his youth and middle age he should attend
to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus
seek to gain Moksha, _i.e._, release from further transmigration. Or, on
account of the uncertainty of life, he may practise them at times when
they are enjoined to be practised. But one thing is to be noted, he
should lead the life of a religious student until he finishes his
_Dharma_ is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of the
Hindoos to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices,
which are not generally done because they do not belong to this world,
and produce no visible effect; and not to do other things, such as
eating meat, which is often done because it belongs to this world, and
has visible effects.
Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from those
conversant with it.
_Artha_ is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth,
equipages and friends. It is, further, the protection of what is
acquired, and the increase of what is protected.
Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants who
may be versed in the ways of commerce.
_Kama_ is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of
hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, and smelling, assisted by the mind
together with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contact
between the organ of sense and its object, and the consciousness of
pleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama.
Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from
the practice of citizens.
When all the three, viz., Dharma, Artha, and Kama come together, the
former is better than the one which follows it, _i.e._, Dharma is better
than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should be always
first practised by the king, for the livelihood of men is to be obtained
from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, they
should prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to the
Some learned men say that as Dharma is connected with things not
belonging to this world, it is appropriately treated of in a book; and
so also is Artha, because it is practised only by the application of
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